Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic condition that occurs when cells become less sensitive to insulin’s stimulation to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. When cells become insulin resistant, pancreatic β-cells increase the production of insulin to overcome IR and maintain normoglycemia.1,2 Over time, IR may continue to increase and/or pancreatic function may decline,2 allowing blood glucose and HbA1c levels to elevate. This can be a gradual process and makes early identification of IR difficult.
If IR is left untreated, it can lead to development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is also associated with other clinical conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and certain forms of cancer.1 Therefore, early identification of IR and intervention can halt or reverse progression of clinical conditions.